PROTECTION OF CHILDREN
87 Meaning of "child" cite [+]
In this Part, wherever the context so requires, "child" has the meaning of "child of the marriage" as defined in section 2 who is under the age of eighteen years.
88 Power for court to make order for custody cite [+]
(1) The court may at any time by order place a child in the custody of his or her father or his or her mother or, where there are exceptional circumstances making it undesirable that the child be entrusted to either parent, of any other relative of the child or of any association the objects of which include child welfare or to any other suitable person.
(2) In deciding in whose custody a child should be placed the paramount consideration shall be the welfare of the child and subject to this the court shall have regard-
(a) to the wishes of the parents of the child; and
(b) to the wishes of the child, where he or she is of an age to express an independent opinion.
(3) There shall be a rebuttable presumption that it is for the good of a child below the age of seven years to be with his or her mother but in deciding whether that presumption applies to the facts of any particular case, the court shall have regard to the undesirability of disturbing the life of a child by changes of custody.
(4) Where there are two or more children of a marriage, the court shall not be bound to place both or all in the custody of the same person but shall consider the welfare of each independently.
89 Orders subject to conditions cite [+]
(1) An order for custody may be made subject to such conditions as the court may think fit to impose, and subject to such conditions, if any, as may from time to time apply, shall entitle the person given custody to decide all questions relating to the upbringing and education of the child.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), an order for custody may-
(a) contain conditions as to the place where the child is to reside, as to the manner of his or her education and as to the religion in which he or she is to be brought up;
(b) provide for the child to be temporarily in the care and control of some person other than the person given custody;
(c) provide for the child to visit a parent deprived of custody or any member of the family of a parent who is dead or has been deprived of custody at such times and for such periods as the court may consider reasonable;
(d) give a parent deprived of custody or any member of the family of a parent who is dead or has been deprived of custody the right of access to the child at such times and with such frequency as the court may consider reasonable; or
(e) prohibit the person given custody from taking the child out of Malaysia.
90 Declaratory order as to unfitness of parent to have custody cite [+]
(1) The court may, when granting a divorce or judicial separation, or at any time thereafter, on the application of the father or the mother of any child of the marriage, make an order declaring either parent to be a person unfit to have the custody of the child and may at any time rescind any such order.
(2) Where an order has been made under subsection (1), and has not been rescinded, the parent thereby declared to be unfit shall not, on the death of the other person, be entitled to the custody of such child unless the court otherwise orders.
91 Custody of children deemed legitimate cite [+]
When a child is deemed to be legitimate under section 75, the mother shall, in the absence of any agreement or order of court to the contrary, be entitled to custody of the child.
92 Duty to maintain children cite [+]
Except where an agreement or order of court otherwise provides, it shall be the duty of a parent to maintain or contribute to the maintenance of his or her children, whether they are in his or her custody or the custody of any other person, either by providing them with such accommodation, clothing, food and education as may be reasonable having regard to his or her means and station in life or by paying the cost thereof.
93 Power for court to order maintenance for children cite [+]
(1) The court may at any time order a man to pay maintenance for the benefit of his child-
(a) if he has refused or neglected reasonably to provide for the child;
(b) if he has deserted his wife and the child is in her charge;
(c) during the pendency of any matrimonial proceedings; or
(d) when making or subsequent to the making of an order placing the child in the custody of any other person.
(2) The court shall have the corresponding power to order a woman to pay or contribute towards the maintenance of her child where it is satisfied that having regard to her means it is reasonable so to order.
(3) An order under subsection (1) or (2) may direct payment to the person having custody or care and control of the child or trustees for the child.
94 Power for court to order security for maintenance cite [+]
The court may, in its discretion, when ordering the payment of maintenance for the benefit of any child, order the person liable to pay such maintenance to secure the whole or any part of it by vesting any property in trustees upon trust to pay such maintenance or part thereof out of the income from such property, and subject thereto, in trust for the settlor.
95 Duration of orders for custody and maintenance cite [+]
Except where an order for custody or maintenance of a child is expressed to be for any shorter period or where any such order has been rescinded, it shall expire on the attainment by the child of the age of eighteen years or where the child is under physical or mental disability, on the ceasing of such disability, whichever is the later.
96 Power for court to vary orders for custody or maintenance cite [+]
The court may at any time and from time to time vary, or may rescind, any order for the custody or maintenance of a child on the application of any interested person, where it is satisfied that the order was based on any misrepresentation or mistake of fact or where there has been any material change in the circumstances.