Evidence Act 1950 [Act 56]

158 What matters may be proved in connection with proved statement relevant under section 32 or 33   cite [+]

Whenever any statement relevant under section 32 or 33 is proved, all matters may be proved either in order to contradict or to corroborate it, or in order to impeach or confirm the credit of the person by whom it was made, which might have been proved if that person had been called as a witness and had denied upon crossexamination the truth of the matter suggested.

159 Refreshing memory   cite [+]

(1) A witness may while under examination refresh his memory by referring to any writing made by himself at the time of the transaction concerning which he is questioned, or so soon afterwards that the court considers it likely that the transaction was at that time fresh in his memory.

(2) The witness may also refer to any such writing made by any other person and read by the witness within the time aforesaid, if, when he read it, he knew it to be correct.

(3) Whenever the witness may refresh his memory by reference to any document, he may, with the permission of the court, refer to a copy of that document:

Provided the court is satisfied that there is sufficient reason for the non-production of the original.

(4) An expert may refresh his memory by reference to professional treatises.

160 Testimony to facts stated in document mentioned in section 159   cite [+]

A witness may also testify to facts mentioned in any such document as is mentioned in section 159 although he has no specific recollection of the facts themselves, if he is sure that the facts were correctly recorded in the document.


A book-keeper may testify to facts recorded by him in books regularly kept in the course of business if he knows that the books were correctly kept, although he has forgotten the particular transactions entered.

161 Right of adverse party as to writing used to refresh memory   cite [+]

Any writing referred to under section 159 or 160 must be produced and shown to the adverse party if he requires it; such party may, if he pleases, cross-examine the witness thereupon.

162 Production of documents and their translation   cite [+]

(1) A witness summoned to produce a document shall, if it is in his possession or power, bring it to court notwithstanding any objection which there may be to its production or to its admissibility. The validity of any such objection shall be decided on by the court.

(2) The court, if it sees fit, may inspect the document unless it refers to affairs of State, or take other evidence to enable it to determine on its admissibility.

(3) If for such a purpose it is necessary to cause any document to be translated, the court may, if it thinks fit, direct the translator to keep the contents secret unless the document is to be given in evidence, and if the translator disobeys the direction, he shall be held to have committed an offence under section 166 of the Penal Code.

163 Giving as evidence of document called for and produced on notice   cite [+]

When a party calls for a document which he has given the other party notice to produce, and the document is produced and inspected by the party calling for its production, he is bound to give it as evidence if the party producing it requires him to do so and if it is relevant.

164 Using as evidence of document production of which was refused on notice   cite [+]

When a party refuses to produce a document which he has had notice to produce, he may not afterwards use the document as evidence without the consent of the other party or the order of the court.


A sues B on an agreement, and gives B notice to produce it. At the trial A calls for the document, and B refuses to produce it. A gives secondary evidence of its contents. B seeks to produce the document itself to contradict the secondary evidence given by A, or in order to show that the agreement is not stamped. He may not do so.

165 Judge's power to put questions or order production   cite [+]

The Judge may, in order to discover or to obtain proper proof of relevant facts, ask any question he pleases, in any form at any time, of any witness or of the parties, about any fact relevant or irrelevant; and may order the production of any document or thing; and neither the parties nor their agents shall be entitled to make any objection to any such question or order, nor, without the leave of the court, to cross-examine any witness upon any answer given in reply to any such question:

Provided that-

(i) the judgment must be based upon facts declared by this Act to be relevant and duly proved;

(ii) this section shall not authorize any Judge to compel any witness to answer any question or to produce any document which the witness would be entitled to refuse to answer or produce under sections 121 to 131 if the question were asked or the document were called for by the adverse party; nor shall the Judge ask any question which it would be improper for any other person to ask under section 148 or 149; nor shall he dispense with the primary evidence of any document, except in the cases hereinbefore excepted.

166 Power of assessors to put questions   cite [+]

In cases tried with assessors the assessors may put any questions to the witnesses through or by leave of the Judge, which the Judge himself might put and which he considers proper.

Chapter XI   cite [+]


167 No new trial for improper admission or rejection of evidence   cite [+]

The improper admission or rejection of evidence shall not be ground of itself for a new trial or reversal of any decision in any case if it appears to the court before which the objection is raised that, independently of the evidence objected to and admitted, there was sufficient evidence to justify the decision, or that, if the rejected evidence had been received, it ought not to have varied the decision.

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