83 Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government
(1) The court shall presume that maps or plans purporting to be made by the authority of the Government of Malaysia or the Government of any State were so made and are accurate.
(2) (Deleted by P.U.(A) 261/1971).
84 Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions
The court shall presume the genuineness of every book purporting-
(a) to be printed or published under the authority of the Government of any country and to contain any of the laws of that country; or
(b) to contain reports of decisions of the courts of that country.
85 Presumption as to powers of attorney
The court shall presume that every document purporting to be a power of attorney, and to have been executed before and authenticated by a Notary Public or Commissioner for Oaths, or any court, Judge, Magistrate, or consular officer of Malaysia was so executed and authenticated.
86 Presumption as to certified copies of foreign judicial records
The court may presume that any document purporting to be a certified copy of any judicial record of any country not being a part of the Commonwealth is genuine and accurate if the document purports to be certified in any manner which is certified by any representative of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong in or for such country to be the manner commonly in use in that country for the certification of copies of judicial records.
87 Presumption as to books, maps and charts
The court may presume that any book to which it may refer for information on matters of public or general interest, and that any published map or chart the statements of which are relevant facts and which is produced for its inspection, was written and published by the person and at the time and place by whom or at which it purports to have been written or published.
88 Presumption as to telegraphic messages
The court may presume that a message forwarded from a telegraph office to the person to whom it purports to be addressed corresponds with a message delivered for transmission at the office from which the message purports to be sent; but the court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom the message was delivered for transmission.
89 Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not produced
The court shall presume that every document called for and not produced, after notice to produce given under section 66, was attested, stamped and executed in the manner required by law.
90 Presumption as to documents twenty years old
Where any document purporting or proved to be twenty years old is produced from any custody which the court in the particular case considers proper, the court may presume that the signature and every other part of that document which purports to be in the handwriting of any particular person is in that person's handwriting, and in the case of a document executed or attested, that it was duly executed and attested by the persons by whom it purports to be executed and attested.
Explanation-Documents are said to be in proper custody if they are in the place in which and under the care of the person with whom they would naturally be; but no custody is improper if it is proved to have had a legitimate origin, or if the circumstances of the particular case are such as to render such an origin probable.
This explanation applies also to section 81.
(a) A has been in possession of landed property for a long time. He produces from his custody documents relating to the land, showing his titles to it. The custody is proper.
(b) A produces documents relating to landed property of which he is the chargee. The chargor is in possession. The custody is proper.
(c) A, a connection of B, produces documents relating to lands in B's possession, which were deposited with him by B for safe custody. The custody is
Documents Produced by a Computer
90A Admissibility of documents produced by computers, and of statements contained therein
(1) In any criminal or civil proceeding a document produced by a computer, or a statement contained in such document, shall be admissible as evidence of any fact stated therein if the document was produced by the computer in the course of its ordinary use, whether or not the person tendering the same is the maker of such document or statement.
(2) For the purposes of this section it may be proved that a document was produced by a computer in the course of its ordinary use by tendering to the court a certificate signed by a person who either before or after the production of the document by the computer is responsible for the management of the operation of that computer, or for the conduct of the activities for which that computer was used.
(a) It shall be sufficient, in a certificate given under subsection (2), for a matter to be stated to the best of the knowledge and belief of the person stating it.
(b) A certificate given under subsection (2) shall be admissible in evidence as prima facie proof of all matters stated in it without proof of signature of the person who gave the certificate.
(4) Where a certificate is given under subsection (2), it shall be presumed that the computer referred to in the certificate was in good working order and was operating properly in all respects throughout the material part of the period during which the document was produced.
(5) A document shall be deemed to have been produced by a computer whether it was produced by it directly or by means of any appropriate equipment, and whether or not there was any direct or indirect human intervention.
(6) A document produced by a computer, or a statement contained in such document, shall be admissible in evidence whether or not it was produced by the computer after the commencement of the criminal or civil proceeding or after the commencement of any investigation or inquiry in relation to the criminal or civil proceeding or such investigation or inquiry, and any document so produced by a computer shall be deemed to be produced by the computer in the course of its ordinary use.
(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, a document produced by a computer, or a statement contained in such document, shall not be admissible in evidence in any criminal proceeding, where it is given in evidence by or on behalf of the person who is charged with an offence in such proceeding the person so charged with the offence being a person who was-
(a) responsible for the management of the operation of that computer or for the conduct of the activities for which that computer was used; or
(b) in any manner or to any extent involved, directly or indirectly, in the production of the document by the computer.
90B Weight to be attached to document, or statement contained in document, admitted by virtue of section 90A
In estimating the weight, if any, to be attached to a document, or a statement contained in a document, admitted by virtue of section 90A, the court-
(a) may draw any reasonable inference from circumstances relating to the document or the statement, including the manner and purpose of its creation, or its accuracy or otherwise;
(b) shall have regard to-
(i) the interval of time between the occurrence or existence of the facts stated in the document or statement, and the supply of the relevant information or matter into the computer; and
(ii) whether or not the person who supplies, or any person concerned with the supply of, such information or the custody of the document, or the document containing the statement, had any incentive to conceal or misrepresent all or any of the facts stated in the document or statement.