Looking back in 2015, some great achievements had been made. This article concludes the top countries which had made a big through in medical science and biology.
Brain research has made new achievements; medicine and disease prevention has made a large number of major breakthroughs;synthetic biology also has made some progress. American scientist has made a big through in brain research: Ohio State University developed a nearly formed human brain. Its size was just as a pencil eraser and the degree of development equaled a five-week fetal without any sense, but it possessed major cell types and functions of people' brain. It could do gene expression as human brain, so it could be utilized to test new drugs and have a better understanding of brain disease mechanisms. On September, an experiment proved that two brains can connect directly, which means that one can guess the thought of the other without voice.
United Kingdom has focused on the research of antibiotic resistance mechanism; has developed the drug "identity card" and reliable "artificial pancreas". On July, Cambridge University researchers found that people having cardiovascular disease and diabetes live 15 years shorter than people with one disease or without the two disease. On August, Imperial College researchers found a "trigger" of pathogenic bacterial defense mechanism and its principle might provide new clues to the problem of bacterial resistance response. On September, a new technique was utilized to help pharmaceutical workers to identify quack medicines. To mark miniature bar code which failed to be recognized by naked eyes on pills as a drug "identity card". In addition, an improved artificial pancreas device was launched and it could work continuously up to 12 weeks. This "artificial pancreas" would not only improve the reliability and working hours significantly, but also the ability to control their blood sugar was also improved greatly.
France obtained atomic level structure of human ribosomes; listed meat products as a category 1 carcinogen for the first time; discovered carbon nanotubes in the lungs of children residing in Paris.
On April, French researchers used high-resolution and single-particle electron microscopy as well as atomic model building methods to get atomic level structure of human ribosomes. Ribosomal protein was capable of catalyzing the synthesis. Currently, many studies have been successfully resolved a variety of biological ribosomes atomic level structure, there was a big challenge in getting human ribosome structure. This finding is meaningful to the deep understanding, treatment and strategies of human disease.
Researchers of Kyushu University found an antibody which could bind with Marburg virus and Ebola virus, which provided new ideas of antiviral drugs and vaccines. Juntendo University researchers first discovered the genes that caused Parkinson's disease. One of the causes of genetic Parkinson's disease was variation of gene CHCHD2. Yokohama City University researchers found that the two newly discovered genes were harmonious with genes that caused kidney cancer and the genes could inhibit the occurrence and growth of kidney cancer. Keio University researchers confirmed that there are a variety of bacteria on surface of the skin. If the balance was broken, yellow staphylococci abnormal would increase, causing allergic dermatitis.
Apart from above countries, German, Russia, Canada, Israel, Korea and Brazil also have made great achievements on medical science.